Types of transmission towers pdf

Types of transmission towers pdf

Every high voltage transmission line is supported by a transmission tower. Tower structures are different from basic power poles. They support multiple high voltage lines as opposed to the single poles that handle local delivery. Towers are important for the transport of large quantities of electricity over a long distance. Transmission towers combine with substations and pole lines to form the electrical grid. The types of towers in use are often relative to the weight and strain they support and the direction or angle of their power lines.

Electrical power line routes are designed based on geography and the available paths according to easements, placement abilities and the ultimate destination. Surveyors work to maintain straight lines along the route as much as possible, but angle towers are needed each time the line takes a directional change. The angle means the tower must support the directional change. Anchors are added to the tower to counteract the pressure placed against the angle. The angle or tension-style tower is more heavy duty than a regular suspension tower because it must support a greater load.

Suspension power line towers make up the majority of the structure types on a high voltage line. The towers run the straight line routes where the angle deviation is less than 5 degrees.

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Like all transmission lines, the suspension towers have conductors attached to the lines. Numerous structure variations exist on suspension towers, and engineers must determine if extra arms and supports are required for the line. They also base the tower size and supports on the line type and load placed on the tower. The transposition structure is designed to support extra weight on a long distance line.

They are most common in the three-phase line system and are often used on long distance spans where the sag and weight in the center of the span places a heavy load on the structure.

Like all towers, a transposition tower has a peak, a cage and a body for support. The cross arms are extended to hold the conductors and lines with spacing that prevents contact. The overall design concept is simple, but the actual building and execution process is complex and difficult. Other custom tower types are built when circumstances require a major angle change or additional support requirements based on environmental factors.

Heavy wind, porous soils, freezing rain and other factors influence tower construction decisions.

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Types of Transmission Towers. By : Zach Lazzari November 8, Share Share on Facebook. Get great tech advice delivered to your inbox.

Keep your family productive, connected, entertained, and safe. Please enter a valid email.Electrical transmission lines is normally applied on various types of loads.

The loads are affecting to the transmission line and conductor do main role under power line design stage. There are specific formulas to calculate these loads applied in to transmission lines and towers.

Following are some of the loads which directly affected in to Transmission lines and conductors. Wind pressure which applied in to electrical transmission lines and conductors are taken in to account. Normally these kinds of loads are considered applied on horizontally on tower and conductors. Wind pressure applied in to Electrical transmission lines can calculate on projected area of the tower also called as windward face.

Following are several factors which important in wind pressure on transmission lines. Transverse Load happened due to wind pressure can calculated. These type of transverse loads are happened due to line deviations and wind loads of insulators. Wind span is the sum of two half spans which adjacent to support. The unbalanced pull due to broken conductors in the case of supports with suspension strings, can be assumed reduced value of maximum working tension of the conductor as per the requirement.

For the ground wire broken condition and maximum working tension shall be considered for the purpose of design of tower. The unbalanced pull due to broken conductor or ground wire in case of tension strings, shall be equal to the component of the maximum working tension of conductor or the ground wires as the case may be in longitudinal direction along with its components in the transverse direction.

Vertical Load is happen due to the conductor and earth wires appropriate weight span. These loads are in addition to vertical loads due to the insulator fittings of the transmission tower structure. Normally the construction of transmission tower ensures that vertical loads of tower are not getting exceeded. Hope you got an idea on the type of loads affected to transmission tower and transmission conductors. Following are the article which related to power transmission line in electrical engineering industry.

Safty Clearance for Power Transmission Lines. Power Transmission Tower Extensions. Types of Transmission Tower Bracing. Types of Conductors use for Transmission Line. Main Components of Transmission Tower. Power Transmission Line Tower Foundations. Your email address will not be published. Latest Posts.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Optimization of Transmission Towers. Aakash Mohan. The various methods include Simulated Annealing, Cuckoo search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Ant colony optimization, Simulated Annealing and P-delta analysis.

The formulation is devoted to obtain the most common objective in engineering minimum cost considering the limitations imposed in actual norms for this kind of structures Different papers are discussed explaining these methods with a typical example and the results.

Finally, the results obtained are summarized and compared. Keywords: Transmission tower, Cuckoo search, Weight minimization, Optimal design Introduction Transmission line towers constitute about 28 to 42 percent of the total cost of the transmission lines. The increasing demand for electrical energy can be met more economically by developing different light weight configurations of transmission line towers.

Therefore, it is very important to find an optimal design for the transmission tower that would give the minimum weight. Optimization plays an important role in structural design, the very purpose of which is to find the best ways so that a designer or a decision maker can derive a maximum benefit from the available resources.

Transmission Line- Foundation

The basic idea behind intuitive or indirect design in engineering is the memory of past experiences, subconscious motives, incomplete logical processes, random selections or sometimes mere superstition. This, in general, will not lead to the best design.

Types of Transmission Towers

The shortcomings of the indirect design can be overcome by adopting a direct or optimal design procedure. In making a logical decision, one sets out the constraints and then minimizes or maximizes the objective function which could be either cost, weight or merit function. Optimization using the meta — heuristic search techniques is getting more importance due to its feasibility and applicability to structures with large number of design variables. These meta-heuristic search techniques are developed by mimicking the concepts of nature.

This papers shows the application of various soft computing methods which had been adopted by the researchers in the past such as Ant colony optimization, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Cuckoo search algorithm, Simulated Annealing and P-delta analysis. Literature review and results R.

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Nagavinothini and C. Nagavinothini, C. Subramanian,had used Cuckoo search algorithm to optimize the weight of the transmission line tower. The bar transmission tower and is selected as a case study to show the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the CS algorithm in terms of member grouping strategies.

The objective function is the weight of the tower and the constraints are the stress constraints and the deflection constraints. The tower has 77 nodes and members. The members of the tower are grouped into 26 different groups and the design criteria obeying IS is adopted. Another bar transmission line tower having kV double circuit steel transmission line with a suspension towers 2 deg angle deviation is considered as a case study. The model of tower is square base, self-supporting type with angle sections.

The tower has totally nodes and members. These members are grouped into 49 groups for the purpose of optimization. The grouping is made based on the symmetry of the members. The total number of Indian Standard angle sections considered is The optimum weight of the bar transmission line tower is found after iterations and the optimum weight for bar transmission line tower is found after iterations. The optimization results from CS algorithm shows that the weight of the bar transmission line tower with 26 design variables can be reduced upto 8 percent and the weight of the bar transmission line tower with 49 design variables can be reduced upto 10 percent.I am searching for pictures of electrical transmission towers.

Specifically pics of towers that carry electricity from Boulder Dam into the Southern California area. These are So. I need them for a short story I am working on that contains one of these towers as its major focal point. I would appreciate any assistance. I was searching for different types of transmission line construction then I was able to bump to your blog. I guess I could you as my link since our topic is related.

You Have Innocent informations about electricity projects. I liked it. Haribhakti Extn. Any interesting discussion is worthy of attention, this blog is definitely worth adding to your favorites.

Quality Used Transmissions. I would like comparison of costs of fabricating and erecting distribution tower. The savings are in power losses. Buried cable has much less. I live in Kerrville, Tx, and a massive transmission line project is under way.

Electrical Transmission Tower types and design | Electrical Engineering.pdf

This is all new construction ans I am puzzled. There are tubular towers and lattice towers being used and I was wondering why there seems to be on rhyme or reason.

What or who decides which sort of tower is to be used? Just curious. The lines will transverse many protected forest environments including preserves and the White Mountain National Forest. There is little soil along this route, mostly granite ledge. How will these towers be "secured" to the ground so that winds won't blow them over? These towers will be crossing over high rocky ridges in Many areas along a mile route.

Any information you can provide on this aspect of tower construction would be very helpful.

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Thank you.Most common model of transmission line system is for terminal model. Construction of Transmission line is very hard and sophisticated method. Major concern take on safety side while constructing and operating transmission lines.

Transmission line traverse across different part of the country in different environmental conditions.

4 Types of Loading on Electrical Transmission Lines

There are several methods use to design the transmission line on selected terrain. There are several types of tower foundation according to geographical change in that appropriate land. Concrete block are use to cover any part of steel work below the ground and this foundation is intended to be used where the soil conditions are fine and water is also under side of that foundation.

These types of foundation conditions were suitable for weak soils. This foundation is also intended to be used where the soil conditions are fine and water is also under side of that foundation. These types of foundation conditions were suitable for location where good soil is encountered at underside of foundation level.

An example for water logged is paddy field with good underlying soil. Raft Type These types of foundation conditions were suitable for location for installation in poor soil in an area which is regularly waterlogged. These types of foundation conditions were suitable for use in poor soil in area which is permanently water logged.

We can assume that line shall be sunk and the foundation would be sunken so the foundation would be designed to carry loads. These types of foundation conditions were suitable for location where soft rock occurs. The soft rocks shall be weathered or of harder in nature.

Types of Electric Poles in Overhead Transmission Lines

These types of foundation conditions were suitable for installation at location where good rock is encountered. Normally this soil have the combination of silt and clay.

This soil also get unified with the parent soil. Where deep swampy or other type of ground is encountered unsuitable for above decide foundations, pile foundations, pile foundations shall be employ. Apart of the above mentioned soil types, different combinations of the soils are also able to aplly while excavation of Transmission line tower foundations.

Foundation perform key role in any structure in safety and performance. If we consider about transmission line we have to extra care on it foundation rather than other structures.Transmission towers have to carry the heavy transmission conductor at a sufficient safe height from ground.

In addition to that all towers have to sustain all kinds of natural calamities. So transmission tower designing is an important engineering job where all three basic engineering concepts, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering concepts are equally applicable. Generally earth shield wire connected to the tip of this peak. The dimension of cross arm depends on the level of transmission voltage, configuration and minimum forming angle for stress distribution.

Cage of transmission tower The portion between tower body and peak is known as cage of transmission tower. This portion of the tower holds the cross arms. Transmission tower body The portion from bottom cross arms up to the ground level is called transmission tower body.

This portion of the tower plays a vital role for maintaining required ground clearance of the bottom conductor of the transmission line. Design of transmission tower During design of transmission tower the following points to be considered in mind, a The minimum ground clearance of the lowest conductor point above the ground level. Minimum permissible ground clearance H1 2.

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Maximum sag of the conductor H2 3. Vertical spacing between top and bottom conductors H3 4. Vertical clearance between ground wire and top conductor H4. Types of transmission tower According to different considerations, there are different types of transmission towers.

The transmission line goes as per available corridors.

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Due to unavailability of shortest distance straight corridor transmission line has to deviate from its straight way when obstruction comes. In total length of a long transmission line there may be several deviation points. According to the angle of deviation there are four types of transmission tower 1.

A type tower angle of deviation 0 to 2. B type tower angle of deviation 2 to C type tower angle of deviation 15 to D type tower angle of deviation 30 to As per the force applied by the conductor on the cross arms, the transmission towers can be categorized in another way. Tangent Suspension tower and it is generally A type tower. Angle tower or tension tower or sometime it is called section tower. All B, C and D types of transmission towers come under this category.

types of transmission towers pdf

River Crossing Tower 2. Transposition tower Based on numbers of circuits carried by a transmission tower, it can be classisfied as 1. Single Circuit tower 2. Double Circuit tower 3. Multi Circuit tower.

ISO Certified. Contact For Best Quality. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.Subtransmission systems are those circuits that supply distribution substations. Several different subtransmission systems can supply distribution substations.

Common subtransmission voltages include Higher voltage subtransmission lines can carry more power with less losses over greater distances. Distribution circuits are occasionally supplied by high-voltage transmission lines such as kV; such high voltages make for expensive high-side equipment in a substation.

Subtransmission circuits are normally supplied by bulk transmission lines at subtransmission substations. For some utilities, one transmission system serves as both the subtransmission function feeding distribution substations and the transmission function distributing power from bulk generators.

There is much crossover in functionality and voltage. One utility may have a kV subtransmission system supplying 4-kV distribution substations. Another utility right next door may have a And within utilities, one can find a variety of different voltage combinations.

Of all of the subtransmission circuit arrangements, a radial configuration is the simplest and least expensive see Figure 1. But radial circuits provide the most unreliable supply; a fault on the subtransmission circuit can force an interruption of several distribution substations and service to many customers.

A variety of redundant subtransmission circuits are available, including dual circuits and looped or meshed circuits see Figure 1. The design and evolution of subtransmission configurations depends on how the circuit developed, where the load is needed now and in the future, what the distribution circuit voltages are, where bulk transmission is available, where rights-of-way are available, and, of course, economic factors.

Most subtransmission circuits are overhead. Many are built right along roads and streets just like distribution lines. Some — especially higher voltage subtransmission circuits — use a private right-of-way such as bulk transmission lines use.

Some new subtransmission lines are put underground, as development of solid-insulation cables has made costs more reasonable. Lower voltage subtransmission lines 69, Higher voltage transmission lines, and kV tend to be designed and operated like bulk transmission lines, with loop or mesh arrangements, tower configurations on a private right-of-way, a shield wire or wires for lightning protection, and directional or pilot-wire relaying from two ends.

Generators may or may not interface at the subtransmission level which can affect protection practices.

types of transmission towers pdf

Theory for 5 g At sea wind solar machinery and lines used in transference of waves through lines reflecting through land bouncing off pylons fir a non dangerous way of 5g subrtransmussion and pylon usage in sea and land.

Lines in sea and land through wave reflection not interfering with shipping radar. Lines in sky elevated through solar. Search for:. Premium Membership. More Information. Basics Of Subtransmission Systems. Transmission lines towers Subtransmission systems are those circuits that supply distribution substations.

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types of transmission towers pdf

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